Before, During, & After Reading Strategy

Using the 3-part framework of the reading process, you can help your students fully engage with texts. The method includes breaking reading assignments into three comprehensive building steps: before reading, during reading, and after reading. This framework allows the freedom for you to design and develop the activities that work best for your students.


Prior to reading the text, engage in various activities that reduce uncertainty. This strategy requires preparation to determine the purpose of the assigned reading. When students understand the purpose of the reading, they are better equipped to make logical analyses from their close reading of a text before reading is also an opportunity for teachers to address key concepts and vocabulary. Engaging in before-reading activities will help motivate students in the lesson.

Examples of Before Reading Activities

  • Use visual aids such as diagrams, photographs, maps, etc., to introduce students to the topic.
  • Discuss, activate, asses, and build on the student’s background knowledge of the topic.
  • Review unknown vocabulary with students.


During Reading refers to the students actively reading the text out loud or silently. At this stage of the reading, students are answering questions (either teacher or student-generated), monitoring their comprehension, and clarifying the purpose of the reading. 

Examples of During Reading Activities

  • Remind students to reread to clarify the confusion.
  • During Reading is a great opportunity to model skills for students. For example, you might model how to infer the author’s intentions.  
  • Stimulate class discussion with questions and observations. 


This final part of the reading is meant for students to make connections, deepen understanding, and reflect. It’s a great time to demonstrate that reading is not a single, isolated event but an ongoing process. 


Examples of After Reading Activities

  • Have students reread to review the information and locate specific information.
  • Have students summarize in their own words what they read.
  • Have students generate new questions related to the text.